4 section

Veliky Novgorod: the City’s Evolving Image in Graphic Art

62
Weliki:Novogord oder Gros.Navgard O.K. fe. Adam Olearius (Ölschläger,Oehlschlegel) «Vermehrte Newe Beschreibung Der Muscowitischen und Persischen Reyse: So durch gelegenheit einer Holsteinischen Gesandtschafft an den Russischen Zaar und König in Persien geschehen. Schleswig, Gedruckt in der Fürstl. Druckerey durch Johan Holwein Im jahr MDCLVI»
Veliky Novgorod
Veliky Novgorod

Made by: O.K
Etching,
1656

From the book by Adam Olearius
(Ölschläger, Oehlschlegel)
An Expanded Version of Voyages
and Travels, of the Ambassadors
Sent by Frederik Duke of Holstein
to the Great Duke of Muscovy,
and the King of Persia. Schleswig, printed in the Duke’s printing
house By Johan Holwein in the
year MDCLVI

This View of Novgorod comes from the famous book by Adam Olearius (1599–1671), who visited Russia in 1635–1639. The German traveller and scholar was the Secretary to the Embassy led by Philipp Crusius and Otto Bruggemann, sent by the Duke Frederik III of Holstein-Gottorp to Russia and Persia. The embassy was on a mission to negotiate the opening of a trade route from Persia through Muscovy to Europe. During the journey, Olearius made sketches of places the embassy visited. These were later engraved by three craftsmen. To make sure that his drawings are accurately turned into sketches to copper plates from which the prints were to be made, Olearius invited the engravers to stay at his house.

The embassy arrived in Riga by sea, and from there proceeded by land to Moscow, visiting on the way Revel (Tallinn), Narva, Ivangorod, Lake Ladoga and Novgorod. The name of city is both transliterated as Weliki Novogord and translated into German as Gros. Navgard (Novgorod the Great). The view shows the Novgorod Kremlin (Schloss), the Torgovaya Side, the bridge over the Volkhov River (Wolchav Fluvi), and the Antoniev Monastery (S. Antoni. Kloster).

63
Das kloster Chutina Adam Olearius (Ölschläger) «Viel Vermehrte Moscowitische und Persianische Reisebeschreibung wie auch Mandeslo u. Anderssen nebenst andern von Adam Olearius aussgegebene Schrifften. Von Neuen auffgelegt Ao 1696»
The Khutyn Monastery
The Khutyn Monastery

Unknown engraver
Etching, 1696

From the posthumous edition of Adam Olearius’s 1696 book: A Much Expanded Voyages and Travels to Muscovy and Persia, Whereto are Added the Travels of Johan Albert de Mandelslo and Jürgen Anderssen, published by Adam Olearius.
Reprinted in 1696.

Founded by Saint Barlaam of Khutyn in the 12th century, the monastery is located a few kilometres outside of Veliky Novgorod. Adam Olearius’s embassy visited the monastery on 27 July 1634. The monastery made a good impression on the travellers. Olearius noted its size, the number of monks (60) and peasants (400), and its scenic location. He also reported that the Khutyn Monastery was required to maintain 100 people at the Tsar’s service in Novgorod, but did not mention anything about the monastery’s founding legend. The legend has it that the name Khutyn derives from the root Khudoy, or an evil place in Russian. Saint Barlaam chose this place to recluse himself and later built
a church to celebrate a victory over the “evil forces” ...

Notably, the title of the book containing this print includes names of other individuals who visited the Middle East at different times. One of them, a German traveller and diplomat Johan Albrecht de Mandelslo, visited Persia and India in 1630s. Olearius was first to publish his travel notes in 1658, as well as those of Jürgen Andersen, who visited a number of exotic for his time places in 1640s, including Persia, Turkey, China, Japan, Ceylon, Arabia and Palestine. Like many of his contemporaries, Andersen undertook his travels prompted by the Thirty Years’ War, which had forced him to leave his homeland to serve in the Dutch East India Company visit. Similar circumstances brought many foreign travellers to Russia.

64
Novogorod, Ville de la Moscovie, capitale de la Principauté de même nom N.Witsen delinevit; A Leide, Chez Pierre vander Aa
Novgorod, a city in Muscovy and the
capital of the similarly named
principality
Novgorod, a city in Muscovy and the
capital of the similarly named
principality

Picture: N. Witsen
Made by:
Pierre vander Aa in Leiden
Etching,
copperplate print
1719–28

This view of Novgorod was included in several books printed in early 18th century by a Leiden publisher Pieter van der Aa (1659–1733), who specialised in well illustrated publications with views of the world’s cities. The Dutch publisher first included Novgorod’s view in his reprint of Adam Olearius’ book in 1719. In 1728, Van der Aa published his famous multi-volume Galerie Agréable du Monde (Fine Gallery of the World), which featured views and maps of various places from around the world, one of the largest such collections then existed.
Among them was a view of Veliky Novgorod by Nicolaes Witsen (1641–1717). Witsen was a diplomat, businessman, cartographer, and administrator at the Dutch East India Company. He visited Russia in 1664–1665 with Jacob Borel’s Embassy sent to Moscow for trade talks. During the trip, Witsen took notes and made sketches. Later he published a major work on Siberia, which in his time was widely known as Tartary (Noord en Oost Tartarye, 1692).

Witsen’s panoramic view of Novgorod shows a large city with multiple churches and bell towers. In his book, van der Aa placed Witsen’s drawing in the centre of the page, adding some sky view and staffage figures in the foreground to transform a travel sketch into a beautiful perspective.

66
Views and everyday life scenes
of Russia in the 17th century
Views and everyday life scenes
of Russia in the 17th century

Augustine Meyerberg’s album
Publisher: Alexey Suvorin,
1903

67
Vue de la ville de Novogorod Dessiné par Mr. le Ch.er De Lespinasse; Dirigé par Neé, Gravé par Niquet Nicolas-Gabriel Le Clerc «Histoire physique, morale, civile et politique de la
Russie moderne»
A view of Novgorod
A view of Novgorod

Drawn by: De Lespinasse
Supervised by Nee,
engraving by Niquet
A copperplate print
1780s

From the atlas included in Nicolas-
Gabriel dit Le Clerc’s book Histoire Physique, Morale, Civile Et Politique De La Russie Moderne (Physical, Moral, Civil and Political History of Modern Russia)

In late 18th century, Novgorod’s size and antiquity attracted numerous travellers interested in studying Russian history. However, the views of foreign researchers of Russia were often met with criticism from Russian historians and politicians. One of these controversial studies was the work by Nicolas-Gabriel dit Le Clerc (1726–1798), a physician invited to Russia by Empress Elisabeth of Russia in 1759. His book Histoire Physique, Morale, Civile Et Politique De La Russie Moderne (Physical, Moral, Civil and Political History of Modern Russia) was published in the 1880s. Le Clerc stayed in Russia for several years and apparently formed a view of his own on its history and development. However, for our purposes, the atlas attached to his book is of greater value than his research.

The prints in it showed Russia’s major cities, including St Petersburg, Moscow, Veliky Novgorod, and others, as well as clothes and items of everyday life. The atlas was published in France, with prints made by a group of engravers: Louis-Nicolas de Lespinasse, François Denis Née, Claude Niquet, and others. Lespinasse was a master of landscape. His works are known to create a feeling of tranquillity, which is also present in the images of fishermen leisurely doing their work and the slow flow of the Volkhov River. Novgorod captured in this view was to a large extent a work of the French artist’s imagination. Not surprisingly the classic building façadees in it are more characteristic of European architecture.

68
Vue de Novogorod Dessiné et Gravé par M.F. Damame Dematrais; De l’Impremerie de Bassand M.F. Damame-Demartrais «Vues des principales villes de Russie costumes, et usages des habitans de cet empire. Dessinés et gravés par M.F. Damame-Demartrais…»
A view of Novgorod
A view of Novgorod

Drawing and engraving
by Michel-Francois
Damame-Demartrais
;
Bassand Publishing House
Etching, aquatint
1813

From the book:
Michel-Francois Damame-
Demartrais
Views of major
Russian cities, as well as the outfits and customs of the empire’s people.

Le Clerc’s atlas was apparently an inspiration source for Michel-Francois Damame-Demartrais, who himself was well familiar with Russia, where he lived from 1792 to 1805. Ten years later, in Paris, he published an album featuring views of Russian cities. It was called Vues des principales villes de Russie, costumes, et usages des habitans de cet empire. Dessinés et gravés par M.F. Damame-Demartrais (Views of major Russian cities, as well as the outfits and and customs of the empire’s people). The album was not simply a collection of city views, but also included images of folk costumes and ethnic traditions, and scenes of everyday life.

In creating his view of Novgorod, Damame-Demartrais must have relied on Le Clerc’s atlas, considering the similarity of the two works. However, the technique used by the artist makes it a work of art in its own right. The strong contrast between dark and light creates a feeling of a wide water expanse in this city view setting it apart from other etching and copperplate works. In addition, Damame-Demartrais changed the foreground to open up the image for the viewer.

69
Novogorod Fumagali dis. ed inc.; A.Biasioli f. A.T.
Novgorod
Novgorod

Artist: Fumagali,
engraver: Angelo Biasioli
Line etching, tone etching,
hand colouring
Ca. 1810–1830

70
Kremlin
and Shipyards
A View From the Window of the
Governor’s House.
18 October 1839
Kremlin
and Shipyards
A View From the Window of the
Governor’s House.
18 October 1839

Gihaut frères éditeues,
boulevard des Italiens, 5
Lithography by d’Auguste Bry,
Rue du Bac, 134

71
Inside the fortress
Inside the fortress

Ernest Bourdin,
editeur, rue de Seine, 51
Printed by Auguste Bry,
Rue du Bac, 114,
Paris

72
The Apse in the Cathedral
of St Sophia 18 October 1839
The Apse in the Cathedral
of St Sophia 18 October 1839

Printed at d’Auguste Bry,
Rue du Bac, 134

73
The Village
Church in Honour of St Paul
The Village
Church in Honour of St Paul

Ernest Bourdin,
editor, rue de Seine, 51
Printed by Auguste Bry,
rue du Bac, 114,
Paris

Lithographed sheets from: Andre Durant An Artistic and Archaeological Journey through Russia, Made in 1839 by French Artist and Lithographer Andre Durant under the Direction of Anatoly Demidov

«Voyage pittoresque et archéologique en Russie, execute en 1839, sous la direction de M. Anatole de Demidoff. Dessins faits d’apres nature et lithographies a deux teintes par
André Durand» Ca. 1842

In 1839, Russian philanthropist and Active State Councillor Anatoly Demidov, commissioned the French artist Andre Durant (1807–1867) to create images of major Russian cities. Demidov, who lived most of his life in France, was a member of the famous family of Russian industrialists. The result of their collaboration was the Artistic and Archaeological Journey... Durant’s drawings were printed using the technique of lithography to make them look more natural. Judging by the date on the stone matrix from which the prints were made, the album was published in 1842.
Among other cities, Durant visited Veliky Novgorod, where he drew individual monuments and a number of scenic views. Today, these drawings have a great value for viewers and historians not only as artwork, but also as documentary sources of Novgorod life in the 19th century.

The general views include The Kremlin and Shipyards. The View from the Window of the Governor’s House and The Inside View of the Fortress, while The Apse in the Cathedral of St Sophia and The Village Church in Honour of St Paul depict major architectural monu-ments – the 11th century cathedral and the 14th century Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki. Durant’s work combines realistic depiction with romantic rendering of the city’s antiquity and the poetic provincialism of its daily life.

74
grav. G. Pommeau, impr. M. Tulev
Novgorod in 1843
Novgorod in 1843

Engraver: Yegor Pommeau
Publisher: M. Tulev
A lithograph
1844

75
Historical, geographical
and statistical description
of the Russian Empire
Historical, geographical
and statistical description
of the Russian Empire

Ivan Pushkarev
Volume 1, Book 1:
The Novgorod Guberniya
St Petersburg,
1844

76
VELIKY NOVGOROD,
THE ANCIENT CAPITAL
OF RUSSIA
VELIKY NOVGOROD,
THE ANCIENT CAPITAL
OF RUSSIA

Sheet 619 in Volume 3 of the
Russian Popular Prints by
Dmitry Rovinsky Lithograph copy
of a copper plate print from
the first half of the 18th century
1881–1893

Dmitry Rovinsky (1824–1895), was a renowned scholar and collector of Russian engravings, including popular prints known as lubok. A lawyer and privy councilor, Rovinsky took part in the development of Alexander II’s judicial reform. In 1881, he prepared and published Russian Popular Prints in several volumes. The work covers a large scope of material and is comprised of 1,780 prints.
The lubok was widely popular among the city folk and peasants, used to share news, tales, paper icons, etc. The lubok was characterised by simple images, easily understandable texts and bright colours.

Rovinsky’s collection of popular prints included Veliky Novgrad, the Ancient Capital of Russia, which shows the city and 32 monasteries around it. The print is found in Volume 3 of Russian Popular Prints under the title A View of Novgorod and its Monasteries. According to the scholar, it was created in the first half of the 18th century.

77.1
Tour de la Fortresse de Novgorod.
Novgorod citadel tower (Palace Tower)
Novgorod citadel tower (Palace Tower)

Picture from the album Picturesque history of architecture in Russia with the study of climate, morals and civilisation development in the named country.
Valerian Kipryanov...
St Petersburg, 1864

77.2
Vue de la Cathédrale de Ste. Sophie à Novgorod.
A view of the Cathedral
of St Sophia in Novgorod
A view of the Cathedral
of St Sophia in Novgorod

Picture from the album Picturesque history of architecture in Russia with the study of climate, morals and civilisation development in the named country.
Valerian Kipryanov...
St Petersburg, 1864

77.3
Monument commémoratif millénaire, élevé en 1862 a Novgorod.
Monument
built in 1862
in Novgorod
to mark
the millenium
of Russia
Monument
built in 1862
in Novgorod
to mark
the millenium
of Russia

Picture from the album Picturesque history of architecture in Russia with the study of climate, morals and civilisation development in the named country.
Valerian Kipryanov...
St Petersburg, 1864

77.4
Tour de la Fortresse de Novgorod.
Novgorod
citadel tower
(Kokuy tower)
Novgorod
citadel tower
(Kokuy tower)

Picture from the album Picturesque history of architecture in Russia with the study of climate, morals and civilisation development in the named country.
Valerian Kipryanov...
St Petersburg, 1864

79
The Ceremony of the Opening of the Millennium
of Russia monument, 8 September 1862
The Ceremony of the Opening of the Millennium
of Russia monument, 8 September 1862

Lithographed sheet from
An Art Book with Views of Novgorod by K. Burkovsky
Continuous-tone lithographs
1862

The Litographic Printing House of K. Burkovsky printed this book in 1862, probably to celebrate the opening of the Millennium of Russia monument — a landmark event for the 19th century’s Novgorod. Most of the sheets in this book feature a note by the author saying he has made the drawings from nature, which highlights the authenticity of everything depicted. For Burkovsky, it was well beyond that monument. What he tried to achieve with this collection of lithographs was to offer a broad panoramic view of the city — and he did, showing the Sofiyskaya and Market Squares, the Kremlin, a bridge over the Volkhov River, and Rurikovo Gorodische, to name a few. Browsing through the pages, you start to think of Novgorod as a big idyllic city. The fact that these drawings were made and published by alocal makes them all the more special. It was a rare thing back then.

The timing is also important as it coincides with the opening of this monument to Russian statehood, which was designed by Mikhail Mikeshin, Ivan Schroeder and Viktor Hartmann, all alumni of the Russian Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. A complex composition, it consists of a globus cruciger — a symbol of tsarist authority with an Orthodox cross on top — and statues of historic figures. Just by gazing at this great array of sculptures you can feel how long and rich the Russian history really is. Perhaps, this effect was intended. The monument was erected in Novgorod as the cradle of Russian statehood — the place where Rurik started the first ruling dynasty in Russia.

80
A View of the Assembly
of Nobility and Sofiyskaya Square
A View of the Assembly
of Nobility and Sofiyskaya Square

Lithographed sheet from
An Art Book with Views of Novgorod by K. Burkovsky
Continuous-tone lithographs
1862

The Litographic Printing House of K. Burkovsky printed this book in 1862, probably to celebrate the opening of the Millennium of Russia monument — a landmark event for the 19th century’s Novgorod. Most of the sheets in this book feature a note by the author saying he has made the drawings from nature, which highlights the authenticity of everything depicted. For Burkovsky, it was well beyond that monument. What he tried to achieve with this collection of lithographs was to offer a broad panoramic view of the city — and he did, showing the Sofiyskaya and Market Squares, the Kremlin, a bridge over the Volkhov River, and Rurikovo Gorodische, to name a few. Browsing through the pages, you start to think of Novgorod as a big idyllic city. The fact that these drawings were made and published by alocal makes them all the more special. It was a rare thing back then.

The timing is also important as it coincides with the opening of this monument to Russian statehood, which was designed by Mikhail Mikeshin, Ivan Schroeder and Viktor Hartmann, all alumni of the Russian Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. A complex composition, it consists of a globus cruciger — a symbol of tsarist authority with an Orthodox cross on top — and statues of historic figures. Just by gazing at this great array of sculptures you can feel how long and rich the Russian history really is. Perhaps, this effect was intended. The monument was erected in Novgorod as the cradle of Russian statehood — the place where Rurik started the first ruling dynasty in Russia.

81
A View of Rurikovo
Gorodische (Old Town)
near Novgorod
A View of Rurikovo
Gorodische (Old Town)
near Novgorod

Lithographed sheet from
An Art Book with Views of Novgorod by K. Burkovsky
Continuous-tone lithographs
1862

The Litographic Printing House of K. Burkovsky printed this book in 1862, probably to celebrate the opening of the Millennium of Russia monument — a landmark event for the 19th century’s Novgorod. Most of the sheets in this book feature a note by the author saying he has made the drawings from nature, which highlights the authenticity of everything depicted. For Burkovsky, it was well beyond that monument. What he tried to achieve with this collection of lithographs was to offer a broad panoramic view of the city — and he did, showing the Sofiyskaya and Market Squares, the Kremlin, a bridge over the Volkhov River, and Rurikovo Gorodische, to name a few. Browsing through the pages, you start to think of Novgorod as a big idyllic city. The fact that these drawings were made and published by alocal makes them all the more special. It was a rare thing back then.

The timing is also important as it coincides with the opening of this monument to Russian statehood, which was designed by Mikhail Mikeshin, Ivan Schroeder and Viktor Hartmann, all alumni of the Russian Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. A complex composition, it consists of a globus cruciger — a symbol of tsarist authority with an Orthodox cross on top — and statues of historic figures. Just by gazing at this great array of sculptures you can feel how long and rich the Russian history really is. Perhaps, this effect was intended. The monument was erected in Novgorod as the cradle of Russian statehood — the place where Rurik started the first ruling dynasty in Russia.

82
A View of the Kremlin
from the Torgovaya Side
A View of the Kremlin
from the Torgovaya Side

Lithographed sheet from
An Art Book with Views of Novgorod by K. Burkovsky
Continuous-tone lithographs
1862

The Litographic Printing House of K. Burkovsky printed this book in 1862, probably to celebrate the opening of the Millennium of Russia monument — a landmark event for the 19th century’s Novgorod. Most of the sheets in this book feature a note by the author saying he has made the drawings from nature, which highlights the authenticity of everything depicted. For Burkovsky, it was well beyond that monument. What he tried to achieve with this collection of lithographs was to offer a broad panoramic view of the city — and he did, showing the Sofiyskaya and Market Squares, the Kremlin, a bridge over the Volkhov River, and Rurikovo Gorodische, to name a few. Browsing through the pages, you start to think of Novgorod as a big idyllic city. The fact that these drawings were made and published by alocal makes them all the more special. It was a rare thing back then.

The timing is also important as it coincides with the opening of this monument to Russian statehood, which was designed by Mikhail Mikeshin, Ivan Schroeder and Viktor Hartmann, all alumni of the Russian Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. A complex composition, it consists of a globus cruciger — a symbol of tsarist authority with an Orthodox cross on top — and statues of historic figures. Just by gazing at this great array of sculptures you can feel how long and rich the Russian history really is. Perhaps, this effect was intended. The monument was erected in Novgorod as the cradle of Russian statehood — the place where Rurik started the first ruling dynasty in Russia.

83
A View of the Kremlin
and a Part of the Torgovaya
Side from the City Garden
A View of the Kremlin
and a Part of the Torgovaya
Side from the City Garden

Lithographed sheet from
An Art Book with Views of Novgorod by K. Burkovsky
Continuous-tone lithographs
1862

The Litographic Printing House of K. Burkovsky printed this book in 1862, probably to celebrate the opening of the Millennium of Russia monument — a landmark event for the 19th century’s Novgorod. Most of the sheets in this book feature a note by the author saying he has made the drawings from nature, which highlights the authenticity of everything depicted. For Burkovsky, it was well beyond that monument. What he tried to achieve with this collection of lithographs was to offer a broad panoramic view of the city — and he did, showing the Sofiyskaya and Market Squares, the Kremlin, a bridge over the Volkhov River, and Rurikovo Gorodische, to name a few. Browsing through the pages, you start to think of Novgorod as a big idyllic city. The fact that these drawings were made and published by alocal makes them all the more special. It was a rare thing back then.

The timing is also important as it coincides with the opening of this monument to Russian statehood, which was designed by Mikhail Mikeshin, Ivan Schroeder and Viktor Hartmann, all alumni of the Russian Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. A complex composition, it consists of a globus cruciger — a symbol of tsarist authority with an Orthodox cross on top — and statues of historic figures. Just by gazing at this great array of sculptures you can feel how long and rich the Russian history really is. Perhaps, this effect was intended. The monument was erected in Novgorod as the cradle of Russian statehood — the place where Rurik started the first ruling dynasty in Russia.

84
A View of the Kremlin
from the City Garden
A View of the Kremlin
from the City Garden

Lithographed sheet from
An Art Book with Views of Novgorod by K. Burkovsky
Continuous-tone lithographs
1862

The Litographic Printing House of K. Burkovsky printed this book in 1862, probably to celebrate the opening of the Millennium of Russia monument — a landmark event for the 19th century’s Novgorod. Most of the sheets in this book feature a note by the author saying he has made the drawings from nature, which highlights the authenticity of everything depicted. For Burkovsky, it was well beyond that monument. What he tried to achieve with this collection of lithographs was to offer a broad panoramic view of the city — and he did, showing the Sofiyskaya and Market Squares, the Kremlin, a bridge over the Volkhov River, and Rurikovo Gorodische, to name a few. Browsing through the pages, you start to think of Novgorod as a big idyllic city. The fact that these drawings were made and published by alocal makes them all the more special. It was a rare thing back then.

The timing is also important as it coincides with the opening of this monument to Russian statehood, which was designed by Mikhail Mikeshin, Ivan Schroeder and Viktor Hartmann, all alumni of the Russian Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. A complex composition, it consists of a globus cruciger — a symbol of tsarist authority with an Orthodox cross on top — and statues of historic figures. Just by gazing at this great array of sculptures you can feel how long and rich the Russian history really is. Perhaps, this effect was intended. The monument was erected in Novgorod as the cradle of Russian statehood — the place where Rurik started the first ruling dynasty in Russia.

85
A View of the Bridge
over the Volkhov River from the City
Garden
A View of the Bridge
over the Volkhov River from the City
Garden

Lithographed sheet from
An Art Book with Views of Novgorod by K. Burkovsky
Continuous-tone lithographs
1862

The Litographic Printing House of K. Burkovsky printed this book in 1862, probably to celebrate the opening of the Millennium of Russia monument — a landmark event for the 19th century’s Novgorod. Most of the sheets in this book feature a note by the author saying he has made the drawings from nature, which highlights the authenticity of everything depicted. For Burkovsky, it was well beyond that monument. What he tried to achieve with this collection of lithographs was to offer a broad panoramic view of the city — and he did, showing the Sofiyskaya and Market Squares, the Kremlin, a bridge over the Volkhov River, and Rurikovo Gorodische, to name a few. Browsing through the pages, you start to think of Novgorod as a big idyllic city. The fact that these drawings were made and published by alocal makes them all the more special. It was a rare thing back then.

The timing is also important as it coincides with the opening of this monument to Russian statehood, which was designed by Mikhail Mikeshin, Ivan Schroeder and Viktor Hartmann, all alumni of the Russian Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. A complex composition, it consists of a globus cruciger — a symbol of tsarist authority with an Orthodox cross on top — and statues of historic figures. Just by gazing at this great array of sculptures you can feel how long and rich the Russian history really is. Perhaps, this effect was intended. The monument was erected in Novgorod as the cradle of Russian statehood — the place where Rurik started the first ruling dynasty in Russia.

86
A View of the Market Square
A View of the Market Square

Lithographed sheet from
An Art Book with Views of Novgorod by K. Burkovsky
Continuous-tone lithographs
1862

The Litographic Printing House of K. Burkovsky printed this book in 1862, probably to celebrate the opening of the Millennium of Russia monument — a landmark event for the 19th century’s Novgorod. Most of the sheets in this book feature a note by the author saying he has made the drawings from nature, which highlights the authenticity of everything depicted. For Burkovsky, it was well beyond that monument. What he tried to achieve with this collection of lithographs was to offer a broad panoramic view of the city — and he did, showing the Sofiyskaya and Market Squares, the Kremlin, a bridge over the Volkhov River, and Rurikovo Gorodische, to name a few. Browsing through the pages, you start to think of Novgorod as a big idyllic city. The fact that these drawings were made and published by alocal makes them all the more special. It was a rare thing back then.

The timing is also important as it coincides with the opening of this monument to Russian statehood, which was designed by Mikhail Mikeshin, Ivan Schroeder and Viktor Hartmann, all alumni of the Russian Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. A complex composition, it consists of a globus cruciger — a symbol of tsarist authority with an Orthodox cross on top — and statues of historic figures. Just by gazing at this great array of sculptures you can feel how long and rich the Russian history really is. Perhaps, this effect was intended. The monument was erected in Novgorod as the cradle of Russian statehood — the place where Rurik started the first ruling dynasty in Russia.

87
A View of the Torgovaya
Side from the City Garden
A View of the Torgovaya
Side from the City Garden

Lithographed sheet from
An Art Book with Views of Novgorod by K. Burkovsky
Continuous-tone lithographs
1862

The Litographic Printing House of K. Burkovsky printed this book in 1862, probably to celebrate the opening of the Millennium of Russia monument — a landmark event for the 19th century’s Novgorod. Most of the sheets in this book feature a note by the author saying he has made the drawings from nature, which highlights the authenticity of everything depicted. For Burkovsky, it was well beyond that monument. What he tried to achieve with this collection of lithographs was to offer a broad panoramic view of the city — and he did, showing the Sofiyskaya and Market Squares, the Kremlin, a bridge over the Volkhov River, and Rurikovo Gorodische, to name a few. Browsing through the pages, you start to think of Novgorod as a big idyllic city. The fact that these drawings were made and published by alocal makes them all the more special. It was a rare thing back then.

The timing is also important as it coincides with the opening of this monument to Russian statehood, which was designed by Mikhail Mikeshin, Ivan Schroeder and Viktor Hartmann, all alumni of the Russian Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. A complex composition, it consists of a globus cruciger — a symbol of tsarist authority with an Orthodox cross on top — and statues of historic figures. Just by gazing at this great array of sculptures you can feel how long and rich the Russian history really is. Perhaps, this effect was intended. The monument was erected in Novgorod as the cradle of Russian statehood — the place where Rurik started the first ruling dynasty in Russia.

88
Church of St Theodore Stratelates
in Novgorod
Church of St Theodore Stratelates
in Novgorod

Unknown artist
A typographic printing,
1900s

89
MONUMENT OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE, AT NOVGOROD. — Designed by M. Mikeschine. A.M. Williams del.; J.M. Williams fe. American Architect and Building News Oct. 20. 1877 The Heliotype Printing Co. 220 Devonshire St. Boston
The Millennium of Russia
monument in Novgorod
The Millennium of Russia
monument in Novgorod

Designer: Mikhail Mikeshin
Made by D. Williams, on the basis
of a drawing by A. Williams

Picture from American Architect and Building News, 20 October 1877. The Heliotype Printing Co. 220 Devonshire Street, Boston

90
INAUGURATION DU MONUMENT MILLÉNAIRE, A NOVGOROD (RUSSIE). — D’apres une photographie de M. Baumann. L’illustration, journal universel.
Unveiling of the Millennium [of Russia]
monument in Novgorod, Russia
Unveiling of the Millennium [of Russia]
monument in Novgorod, Russia

Based on a photo
by M. Baumann

Page from the French
newspaper L’Illustration

3 Desyatinny Monastyr,
Veliky Novgorod
Novgorod Geography
20212022